What is privacy management?
Today, your business must maintain compliance with a bevy of local and international legislation aimed at protecting individual data rights. The processes and activities supporting this are grouped into a discipline experts call privacy management.
As the privacy landscape has evolved, so have the key areas to include in a privacy management program. Because this area is so important for businesses that want to increase their clout with customers and protect themselves legally, it’s important to understand the major factors that contribute to a healthy privacy management program.
This Ultimate Guide to Privacy Management does just that. You’ll learn what areas to address, why they’re important, and how to implement specific tactics to support them.
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Lawfulness, fairness, and nondiscrimination
A foundational standard for privacy management is being able to prove through records that you have a legal reason for collecting and processing personal data. This is called legal basis and it’s at the forefront of widely-followed privacy legislation, including the GDPR and LGPD.
To achieve legal basis, you must be following at least one of six parameters:
In addition to legal basis, there are four other qualifiers to follow when it comes to lawfulness, fairness, and nondiscrimination.
Transparency and free access
Finally, enable free access — freely providing information about the form and duration of your data processing and integrity. This should be done by showing users a message at the time when you’re collecting their data: What information you’re collecting, using, storing, and transferring.
Purpose specification, use limitation, and suitability
It’s not enough you provide a good reason for and valid means of collecting personal data. Privacy management requires purpose specification: You use the data you collect — only and precisely — in the ways you said you would.
To ensure you follow this:
In addition, you shouldn’t do more with the data than you said you would. Use limitation holds you accountable not to share data between departments, to minimize exposure to hackers, and to establish secure ID authentication, among other best practices.
You’re also obligated to comply with use suitability. You can’t color outside the lines of what you told data subjects about the processing of their data.
Data minimization, storage limitation, and accuracy
A privacy management program shouldn’t just focus on the preparation for and collection of personal data. You must also ensure once you collect data, it’s stored and maintained securely. The integrity of a person’s information must stay intact throughout its lifecycle with your company.
Data minimization is the practice of ensuring personal data processing is adequate, relevant, and limited to only what’s necessary. Implement data minimization by:
You also have to follow storage limitation best practices. Personal data must be kept in a way so when it’s no longer necessary to store for your purposes, you can easily delete it. Regularly review your data inventory. Set up triggers to delete data. And erase personal data immediately and securely when users deactivate or delete their accounts.
To keep the personal data you store accurate and updated, set up auditing processes dedicated to this task. Any temporary files created when storing Personal Identifiable Information (PII) must be completely and safely disposed of.
Executing a long-term privacy management program starts with understanding the legal context behind everything you do. Across the world, governments are releasing privacy legislation. You must be knowledgeable about these legal, regulatory, and contractual requirements in order to implement them.
Start with inventory and mapping. Carefully examine your stored data and how it’s handled. This includes processing activities, data actions, data elements, category of individuals, and data environment.
Doing this will help you understand what privacy framework to follow — such as the NIST Privacy Framework — and how to manage the associated privacy risks. Managing these risks is important. Create reporting functions and privacy controls to keep tabs on them.
A trusted and capable privacy management platform is critical to success in this area. Onboard a formal and documented privacy and/or security system committed to continuous auditing and improvement.
Privacy and security are different, but related, disciplines. They rely on each other in order to function effectively. For your privacy management program to succeed, make sure you’re following security best practices:
Security is vital to the health of your privacy management program. You must get it right. As a way to double check your security processes and controls, you can go through this checklist of questions:
Accountability and recordkeeping
Accountability plays a major role in privacy management. You need to follow stringent practices about collecting, storing, and using data. But you also need to be able to prove it if a regulator were to ask for it.
Records of processing is the first way to establish accountability. Keep detailed records of your organization’s processing activities, data flows, and categories of data subjects. If you don’t have one, create a data map:
In addition, consult with your B2B customers before making any legally-binding personal data disclosures to third parties.
You also must have a way to prove you’re registered with the appropriate public authorities for processing activities or to gain approval for certain processing activities. And you have to show exactly who’s completing the activity — for external and internal purposes.
For external verification, you’ll need to determine who’s in charge of the processing of personal data when there’s a joint data controller. Subcontractors also represent an external body that needs to be authorized by customers to process data.
Ongoing and accurate record-keeping is the only way to be ready with sufficient evidence if you’re ever called to account. An amalgam of automated and manual internal reporting and audit mechanisms is essential. Monitor for new laws and regulations in order to update your policies and procedures.
Ensure you have open lines of communication between the privacy office and other departments within the organization.
DPO & privacy by design
Because privacy management is such an important part of a modern organization — and it’s such a massive undertaking to implement well — experts recommend assigning dedicated leadership roles committed to seeing it through.
A Data Protection Officer (DPO) is the team member responsible for privacy and data protection. The company should give this individual authority, means, and resources to launch and maintain a privacy program. In addition, the executive team needs to fully support the initiatives and programs this role sets forth.
One of the main tasks of the DPO is to consistently create and maintain team-wide channels of communication about privacy policies and procedures. Privacy champions from each department act as liaisons between the DPO and their specific teams:
- Information security
- Internal audit
- Vendor management
- Business executives
- Product development
The other main task of the DPO is to create strategies — and make sure they’re executed properly — when it comes to the seven principles of Privacy by Design. These principles are:
Privacy impact assessments
Some privacy laws require privacy impact assessments (PIAs): You’re responsible for identifying risks associated with processing activities. Other privacy standards require PIAs to include different content. General must-haves include:
The result of creating a PIA is to understand risk. A risk treatment plan can help you assess and document the results of your PIAs. From these, you’ll better understand how to take action to decrease the risks you’ve identified.
If you’ve discovered high residual risks, it’s in your best interest to seek advice and approval from data protection authorities before continuing to process data. Some privacy laws even require it. When it comes to protecting personal data, it’s always better to be safe than sorry.
Data subject rights
Providing data rights to users is at the center of almost every international piece of privacy legislation. In other words, you must have a process and support mechanisms in place to address requests from individuals about their data.
It starts with a clear and conspicuous notice to data subjects telling them what rights they have and how to exercise them. There must be an easy way for them to submit requests. And your team should be prepared to handle them. Internal policies, procedures, and training on how to handle data subject requests are a must.
Data subjects rights fall into 10 areas:
If your company automates some decisions about user data, you have to provide a way for users to request a manual review of those automations. Likewise, any changes to a user’s data made via a data subjects rights request has to also be changed by any third parties with whom it’s shared.
Create open lines of communication to inform these entities about modification, withdrawal, or objection about personal data.
It’s not uncommon for companies to outsource to third parties for a variety of services. If you use vendors, though, it’s your responsibility to ensure they’re following your privacy management policies. You’ll have to establish processes and supporting technology to dot your i’s and cross your t’s.
Contracts are key to effective vendor management. They should closely reflect your own privacy standards. A compliance checklist can help here. It provides a rundown of general privacy must-haves — such as a vendor privacy impact assessment — married with policies unique to your organization. You must tick off every box on this checklist in order to onboard a new vendor.
Vendor assessments are essential to monitor ongoing compliance. Double check all your processes to ensure they sufficiently cover technical and organizational measures — and that vendors are following them.
Cross-border data transfer and data localization
Whether you receive or send personal data outside the country in which you do business, privacy management requires you to track that activity. These cross-border data transfers have to be completed via lawful mechanisms such as binding corporate rules (BRC), standard contractual clauses, or consent of the data subject.
It’s important to understand the Schrems II Decision shut down the long-standing Privacy Shield EU-US personal data transfer mechanism. And although SCCs are allowed as a data transfer mechanism, they are only accepted on a case-by-case basis.
In addition to the responsibility of cross-border data transfers, some laws state personal data of citizens or residents of the geographic location addressed by the law be processed or stored within a specific country. Adhere closely to these data localization requirements.
Incident and breach
You never want to face the situation when the personal data you store is compromised. Part of privacy management is preparing thoroughly for incidents and breaches in case they do happen.
Many privacy regulations require organizations to track incidents and breaches. You should make this a best practice to cover yourself legally.
Training your team on incident response processes and procedures will help them feel prepared for these events. Assign responsibilities to managers and their teams. When everyone knows what their jobs are, responses to breaches and incidents will be quicker.
Notifying affected parties is a core activity after a breach. Prepare notification messages in advance for fast delivery and clear communication to those affected, authorities, and data controllers.
Finally, hold a post-mortem. This post-security incident analysis should cover what the team learned, what updates or recurring negative patterns you need to address, and any other communication you need to send, if any.
Conclusion: Build trust with your privacy management program
Including these 13 areas in your privacy management program won’t just ensure you’re following local and international privacy standards. They’ll additionally give you a competitive advantage, no matter what industry you’re in.
In fact, when you build around these principles — treating it as a living program to be continuously improved — customers will naturally trust the transparency and obvious care you take with their information. When users are becoming increasingly wary of business practices, gaining hard-won trust can help your business face the future with confidence.
A privacy management platform can help you foster trust with customers at scale. Automating the most important and time-consuming tasks, this software helps you deliver on your privacy promises to users — on time, every time. OneTrust Privacy Management software is designed to do just that. Reach out to schedule a demo or start your free trial today.